By Matthew J. Goff
The knowledge culture of historical Israel, represented within the Hebrew Bible by way of Proverbs, task, and Ecclesiastes and within the Apocrypha by means of Ben Sira and the knowledge of Solomon, can be well-attested within the texts from Qumran. 4QInstruction (1Q26, 4Q415 418, 4Q423), the biggest knowledge textual content of the useless Sea Scrolls, is taken into account a sapiential textual content basically as a result of its particular and insistent pedagogical nature. To make this crucial knowledge textual content extra greatly on hand, this quantity bargains a serious version, translation, and statement at the major fragments of 4QInstruction. It examines specific texts of 4QInstruction in addition to broader concerns, together with its date, style, major issues, and position in moment Temple Judaism. ultimately, with a purpose to contextualize this pivotal paintings, 4QInstruction s dating to the sapiential and apocalyptic traditions can also be explored.
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Additional info for 4QInstruction
73 Moreover, these two works show extensive terminological similarities 72. Note, however, that 4QInstruction may show some engagement with the book of Qoheleth. See the commentary on 4Q418 69 ii 4–5. 73. Goff 2007, 69–103; Lange 1995, 121–70; Frey 2007, 40–45. Knibb (2003, 193– 210) emphasizes the “shared thought-world” between 1 Enoch, 4QInstruction and the book of Mysteries. 74 This work and Mysteries invoke the mystery that is to be (1QS 11:3–4). The Treatise and 4QInstruction both employ the divine epithet “the God of Knowledge” ( )אל הדעותin deterministic contexts (4Q417 1 i 8; 1QS 3:15; cf.
4QInstruction uses this same language to assert that the wicked will go to the eternal pit (4Q418 69 ii 6; with עולםin the singular). The wisdom text does not describe the nature of the eternal life which the addressee can acquire. However, given the composition’s emphasis on his affinity with the angels, one can plausibly assert that he will join them after death. Obtaining this goal is a powerful incentive for the addressee to remain devoted to the pedagogy advocated by the composition. 7.
4Q416 2 iii 5–7 also encourages prompt payment of debts. 81 4QInstruction’s wary attitude toward borrowing resonates with the sapiential tradition. 83 81. Cf. 4Q415 8 2; 4Q416 2 iii 3–5; 4Q418 87 7. 82. The two compositions use similar language when giving financial instruction. See the discussion of Prov 6:1–4 and 4Q417 2 i 21–22 in §4 above. 83. 5–8); the Mesopotamian composition reads “Do not be a security. … Then you [will be] a security” (12–13 [obverse]). See Goff 2007, 134. ”85 Ben Sira espouses the same attitude: “My son, do not cheat the poor of their living” (4:1; cf.
4QInstruction by Matthew J. Goff