Download PDF by Peter Duren: A century of mathematics in America.

By Peter Duren

ISBN-10: 0821801309

ISBN-13: 9780821801307

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Theorists and experimenters looked for other tricks by which Mother Nature might have added to the stock of matter. A reversal of Sakharov’s proton decay was one suggestion, with particles of the electron–neutrino family converting themselves into quarks. Heavy right-handed neutrinos were a suggested starting point, but evidence remained stubbornly unavailable. ‘We don’t yet have a convincing story for generating the matter–antimatter imbalance of the Universe,’ said Helen Quinn of Stanford, summarizing the state of play in 2001.

34 L o n g b e f o r e the historian Thomas Kuhn brought the term ‘paradigm shift’ into his account of scientific revolutions (see D i s c ove ry ), working scientists were well aware of the problems of getting discoveries or theories accepted. The physicist Desmond Bernal flourished in London in the mid-20th century as a crystallographer, military scientist and left-wing social critic. He described the sequence of responses from fellow scientists, as an idea gradually ascends from rejection to acceptance: 1.

We really didn’t understand why, until a few years ago,’ he said. ’ Tongue in cheek, Spiegelman added, ‘The genes were very careful in devising Man to make him not quite smart enough to make an ideal existence on this planet, and to pollute it sufficiently so there would be pressure to look for other places to live. ’ Excess pressure on the home planet was uppermost in the mind of the physicist Gerard O’Neill of Princeton when, also in the 1970s, he advanced the idea of cities in space. ’ he asked.

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A century of mathematics in America. by Peter Duren


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