By C.F. Goodey
Beginning with the arguable speculation that not just human intelligence but additionally its antithesis 'intellectual incapacity' are not anything greater than ancient contingencies, C.F. Goodey's paradigm-shifting research lines the wealthy interaction among human forms and the substantially altering features attributed to them. From the twelfth-century beginnings of eu social management to the onset of formal human technology disciplines within the glossy period, "A heritage of Intelligence and 'Intellectual Disability'" reconstructs the sociopolitical and spiritual contexts of highbrow skill and incapacity and demonstrates how those thoughts grew to become a part of psychology, medication and biology. Goodey examines a big selection of classical, past due medieval and Renaissance texts, from well known courses on behavior and behaviour to scientific treatises and from non secular and philosophical works to poetry and drama. Focusing in particular at the interval among the Protestant Reformation and 1700, Goodey demanding situations the approved knowledge that might have us think that 'intelligence' and 'disability' describe usual, trans-historical realities. as an alternative, Goodey argues for a version that perspectives highbrow incapacity and certainly the intellectually disabled individual as transitority cultural creations. His booklet is destined to develop into a customary source for students drawn to the background of psychology and medication, the social origins of human self-representation, and present moral debates concerning the genetics of intelligence.
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Additional resources for A History of Intelligence and "Intellectual Disability"
Moreover there is a world of difference, within Aristotle’s own output, between those doctrines and his own supposedly “psychological” text On the Soul, which is mainly restricted to general principles. He does briefly mention a “recipient” of understanding there, but only as one example illustrating the principle that the psyche is the form of the body’s matter (“one can no more separate body from psyche than the wax from its shape”). One might be tempted to infer here that the human species is defined by its reception of the understanding, in a modern sense – raising the possibility of exceptions who do not receive it.
Plato knows this resonance will be heard within his own complex philosophical usage. 23 By contrast with ignorance as simple lack of knowledge (agnoia, referred to above), which though “ugly” is merely an absence, unreason as it occurs in the human realm is positively evil. In The Laws it covers a wide range of conditions: being mad, immature, senile, female, drunk or a poet. It is a sign, in the individual, of an absence of intuited intellect (nous) and thereby of his due portion of cosmic order and purpose.
He will look for elements of convention in nature, and of nature in convention. What does it mean to label some people slaves “by nature”? Most of us, weaned on liberal theories of rational consent and autonomy, might think he is saying that certain people are born with an inferior or disabled intellect, a natural psychological condition that is prior to their socio-political status, and that one is therefore justified in denying them citizenship. If “man is a rational animal” (to use a phrase misattributed to Aristotle), then natural slaves are just like modern disabled people: the exception that tests the rule of human species membership.
A History of Intelligence and "Intellectual Disability" by C.F. Goodey