By C.F. Goodey
Beginning with the speculation that not just human intelligence but in addition its antithesis 'intellectual incapacity' are not anything greater than old contingencies, C.F. Goodey's paradigm-shifting examine strains the wealthy interaction among labelled human varieties and the considerably altering features attributed to them. From the twelfth-century beginnings of eu social management to the onset of formal human technological know-how disciplines within the glossy period, A background of Intelligence and 'Intellectual incapacity' reconstructs the socio-political and spiritual contexts of highbrow skill and incapacity, and demonstrates how those suggestions turned a part of psychology, medication and biology. Goodey examines a wide range of classical, overdue medieval and Renaissance texts, from well known publications on behavior and behaviour to scientific treatises and from spiritual and philosophical works to poetry and drama. Focusing in particular at the interval among the Protestant Reformation and 1700, Goodey demanding situations the approved knowledge that might have us think that 'intelligence' and 'disability' describe typical, trans-historical realities. in its place, Goodey argues for a version that perspectives highbrow incapacity and certainly the intellectually disabled individual as contemporary cultural creations. His publication is destined to develop into a regular source for students attracted to the background of psychology and drugs, the social origins of human self-representation, and present moral debates in regards to the genetics of intelligence.
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Additional resources for A history of intelligence and 'intellectual disability' : the shaping of psychology in early modern Europe
It also has juridical overtones; slaves would have been incompetent to give a reasoned account in court – but only because they had no legal personhood, not on some separate psychological grounds. 32 Surely these are natural intellectual deficits, by any stretch? Once again we need some context. If slaves belong to the community of reason, they also have its properly human virtues: bravery, justice, temperance. The fourth in the standard quartet of virtues, civic intellect, is self-evidently absent because the slave is not a citizen.
19 Natural justice said that foreign enemies could be treated like slaves, but that among Greeks certain conventions applied, or ought to: enslavement of Greek by Greek was against nature, natural justice and natural friendship. After their victory at Syracuse in 413 BC, however, Politics, 1252a7. Politics, 1254a. 17 Politics, 1253b. 18 Dio Chrysostom, Discourses, 15. 19 The Republic, 470c. 15 16 Aristotle and the Slave’s Intellect 29 the Spartans had sent their Athenian captives, fellow-Greeks, into slavery.
25 This is not a deficit model, however. Both abilities are positive functions of the household and polis. ”26 Even here there is no suggestion that the deficit is in the intellect as such. He may be thinking of fellow philosophers such as Diogenes the Cynic, who adopted the life of a homeless beggar. ”27 It is in this context that we must take Aristotle’s assertion that the slave’s “ability” is to be someone else’s possession. 24 26 27 25 Politics, 1254b. Politics, 1252a. Politics, 1253a. Politics, 1254a.
A history of intelligence and 'intellectual disability' : the shaping of psychology in early modern Europe by C.F. Goodey