By Günther Ludwig

ISBN-10: 3540308326

ISBN-13: 9783540308324

Written within the culture of G. Ludwig’s groundbreaking works, this booklet goals to explain and formulate extra exactly the basic rules of actual theories. by means of introducing a easy descriptive language of easy shape, during which it truly is attainable to formulate recorded proof, ambiguities of actual theories are shunned up to attainable. during this method the sector of physics that are meant to be defined through a conception will depend on simple thoughts basically, i.e. techniques that may be defined and not using a theory.

In this context the authors introduce a brand new notion of idealization and assessment the method of researching new techniques. they suspect that, while the theories are formulated inside an axiomatic foundation, options are available to many tricky difficulties resembling the translation of actual theories, the kinfolk among theories in addition to the creation of actual concepts.

The e-book addresses either physicists and philosophers of technological know-how and will motivate the reader to give a contribution to the certainty of the lasting middle of actual wisdom in regards to the actual constructions of the world.

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**Extra resources for A new foundation of physical theories**

**Sample text**

Designation reference & representation denotation - objects - facts - Reality level Fig. 1. Semantic relations One can understand that linguistic entities designate conceptual entities. But how we get relations between conceptual entities and real entities is a very complicated process: We will not describe the process of obtaining relations by “immediate reference;” we can only say which of these concepts are used, but 40 3 From Reality to Mathematics how we get such concepts is a psychological process which we cannot avoid by introducing philosophical a priori concepts.

E) is a consequence of the equivalent relations mentioned under C 24 of [6, Chap. I, Sect. ” Because of their interest, particularly for the very signiﬁcant reﬂection from the point of view of physics (see Chap. 3 and especially Chap. 4) are added: (f) Let A be a relation in M T , and let M T be the theory obtained by adjoining A to the axioms of M T . If B is a theorem in M T , then “A ⇒ B” is a theorem in M T . (Proof: see C 14 of [6, Chap. I, Sect. 3]). (g) Let A(x) and B be relations in M T (x is not a constant of M T ), let T be a term such that A(T ) is a theorem in M T , and let M T be the theory obtained by adjoining A(x) to the axioms of M T (x is thus a constant of M T ).

Designation reference & representation denotation - objects - facts - Reality level Fig. 1. Semantic relations One can understand that linguistic entities designate conceptual entities. But how we get relations between conceptual entities and real entities is a very complicated process: We will not describe the process of obtaining relations by “immediate reference;” we can only say which of these concepts are used, but 40 3 From Reality to Mathematics how we get such concepts is a psychological process which we cannot avoid by introducing philosophical a priori concepts.

### A new foundation of physical theories by Günther Ludwig

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