By L. Mestel (auth.), O. Havnes, B. R. Pettersen, J. H. M. M. Schmitt, J. E. Solheim (eds.)
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Additional info for Activity in Cool Star Envelopes
However, analytical theorems exist which severely constrain the helicity dissipation in high magn,etic ReyrKIlds number plasmas (Berger 1984; Boozer 1986). The net helicity dissipation in, say, a solar flare can be shown to be negligible. A model of coronal heating based on helicity conservation is given in Heyvaerts and Priest (1984). It should be noted that KR can be defined for any subset of coronal fieldlines (Berger 1986). This is valuable, because the helicity of the entire 23 corona may be negligible, whereas the helicity of an individual prominence or x-ray loop may be significant.
Another way in which we can derive constraints on coronal magnetic fields is through observations of quiescent radio emission from M dwarf flare stars (Gary and Linsky 1981 ,Topka and Marsh 1982, Linsky and Gary 1983, Pallavicini et a\. 1985, Kundu et a\. 1987 a, b). This emission is difficult to explain. Thermal free-free emission from the same electrons responsible for the X-ray corona can be excluded, since it would contribute at most one or two orders of magnitude less than the minimum flux observable at present with the VLA.
DIAGNOSTICS OF CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELDS There are several indirect indicators of stellar magnetic fields. ); - stellar cycles, as detected in the Ca II lines in the long-term monitoring program carried out at Mt. Wilson; - chromospheric and transition region UV lines (as detected, for instance, by the IUE satellite); - X-ray coronal emission (as observed with the EINSTEIN and EXOSAT Observatories); - radio emission from stellar coronae (as detected at microwave frequencies with the VLA and/or VLBI techniques); - magnetic braking of stars (interpreted as produced by stellar winds in the presence of magnetic fields).
Activity in Cool Star Envelopes by L. Mestel (auth.), O. Havnes, B. R. Pettersen, J. H. M. M. Schmitt, J. E. Solheim (eds.)