By Silvio Garattini and Parkhurst A. Shore (Eds.)
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For hundreds of years arsenic’s picture as a poison has been inextricably tied to photographs of foul play. In King of toxins, John Parascandola examines the marvelous historical past of this lethal element.
From Gustave Flaubert to Dorothy Sayers, arsenic has lengthy held a spot within the literary realm as an tool of homicide and suicide. It was once delightfully used as a resource of comedy within the well-known play Arsenic and previous Lace. yet as Parascandola indicates, arsenic has had a couple of outstanding real-world purposes. It was once usually present in such universal goods as wallpaper, paint, cosmetics, or even sweet, and its use in scientific remedies was once common. American ambassador Clare Boothe Luce suffered from publicity to arsenical paint in her examine, and Napoleon’s dying has lengthy been imagined to be the results of unintentional or intentional poisoning.
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Additional info for Advances in Pharmacology
Very marked differences in survival time of rats. No consistent correlation with results of acute toxicity experiment. (Courtesy of Drs. A. Studer and B. ) ber of similar drugs. It is obvious that the LD,, did not a t all reflect toxicity encountered after repeated administration. 3. Chronic Toxicity In designing a chronic toxicity experiment, it is of prime importance to consider the intended use and the chemical and pharmacological properties of the substance t o be tested. Industrial solvents, food and feed additives, insecticides, cosmetics, emulsifiers, and other chemicals, pose many specific problems and so does every new drug which is given to the toxicologist.
In mice with 10 samples of the same lot of isoniazid. (Courtesy of Dr. R. ) to check the variability of our own laboratory, we submitted over a period of 4 months 10 samples of the same lot of isoniazid under a code number for determination of the LD,, (Banziger, 1962). The results of this study are summarized in Fig. 1. 2. , 1953). The same observations and measurements are made as in the chronic toxicity experiments. Subacute toxicity has three main applications. g. diagnostic compounds and local anesthetics, or intended to be used in such a way that no appreciable absorption is to be expected (topical preparations); third, as a means of selecting the best tolerated compound from a series of chemically related drugs with similar action.
To avoid this, drug levels in the diet can be adjusted weekly, according to the food intake of the previous week (Hanna, 1960), but the extra work is rarely justified. , 1949). If the drug cannot be mixed in the diet, administration by stomach tube is possible. In dogs, the substances are most often given in gelatin capsules. Injections or oral administration by tube and capsules are usually given once per day unless vomiting or other acute drug effects necessitate divided doses. For economic reasons DRUG TOXICITY 25 it has become an accepted practice not to administer the drug on weekends.
Advances in Pharmacology by Silvio Garattini and Parkhurst A. Shore (Eds.)