By Dennis P. Cantwell M.D., Gabrielle A. Carlson M.D. (auth.)
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Additional resources for Affective Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence: An Update
In: Feuch AP, Berlin IN, eds. Depression in children and adolescents. New York: Human Sciences Press, 1978. Rie HE. Depression in childhood: a survey of some pertinent contributors. JAm A cad Child Psychiatry 1966; 5:653-685. Rochlin G. The loss complex. JAm Psychoanal Assoc 1959; 7:299-316. 38 CANTWELL AND CARLSON Rutter M. Classification. In: Rutter M, Hersov, eds. Child psychiatry. London: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1978 :359-384. Sandler 1, 10ffe WG. Notes on childhood depression. Int J Psychoanal 1965; 46:88-96.
A system cannot be valid if it is not reliable. Even if a classification system has reliability-that is, clinicians can agree with a high degree of reliability on diagnoses applied to a series of cases-it still may not have validity. Spitzer (I 980) has pinpointed the major sources of unreliability in psychiatric diagnosis. These include information variance, observation and interpretation variance, and criterion variance. Information variance arises from the fact that different clinicians evaluating the same case obtain different types of information on which to base their diagnosis.
The family history may not have been inquired into systematically or blindly. At the time the study was done, structured interviews such as the FHRDC (Andreason et ai, 1977) were probably not used. The use of tricyclics and MAO inhibitors was not explored systematically; indeed no data are given with regard to criteria for improvement other than anecdotal reports. Nevertheless, this is an early attempt to look at different subtypes of depression in children. 34 CANTWELL AND CARLSON More recently Cytryn et al (1972) proposed a classification scheme of childhood depression which is based on both severity of the depressive phenomena and on putative etiologic factors.
Affective Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence: An Update by Dennis P. Cantwell M.D., Gabrielle A. Carlson M.D. (auth.)