By Jacques Descotes
Lyon-RTH Laennec college of drugs, France. creation to key immunotoxicological matters. Considers the well-being effects of immunotoxicity and addresses the state of the art equipment used to realize and review unforeseen immunotoxic results of xenobiotics, either preclinically and clinically. For undergraduate and graduate scholars. Hardcover, softcover additionally to be had.
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Additional info for An introduction to immunotoxicology
A number of soluble or cellular molecules interplay in cell-cell interactions: examples of such molecules are the cell adhesion molecules, such as the selectins (ICAM-1/LFA-1, VCAM1) and the interleukins. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is released by stimulated macrophages to activate CD4+ helper T lymphocytes, whereas IL-2 is released by helper T lymphocytes and augments the expression of its own IL-2 receptors on other helper T lymphocytes, which in turn release various cytokines, which activate other immunocompetent cells, such as CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes.
Foreign macromolecules, proteins, polypeptides or microbial extracts can thus be directly sensitising or immunogenic. The molecular weight of most xenobiotics, particularly medicinal products, except for a very few, such as heparin or insulin, is far too small (usually below 500 D), so that they cannot be directly immunogenic, but must act as haptens after strongly binding to carrier macromolecules to become indirectly immunogenic. Importantly, typical drug binding to plasma proteins, such as albumin, is not strong (energy-rich) enough to result in the formation of immunogenic complexes so that no relationship exits between the degree of binding to plasma albumin and immunogenicity (as an illustrative example, diazepam, of which over 95 per cent is bound to plasma proteins, is an extremely rare cause of immune-mediated hypersensitivity reactions).
Cancers of the skin and lips are the most frequently reported malignancies. They account for 30 per cent of all malignancies in transplant patients, and are observed in up to 18 per cent of these patients. The incidence of squamous cell carcinoma is about 250 times that of the general population. Lymphomas account for 14 to 18 per cent of all malignancies in transplant patients, and the incidence of lymphomas is approximately 40 times greater than in the general population. These lymphomas are non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas in 95 per cent of cases.
An introduction to immunotoxicology by Jacques Descotes