Get Antipositivist Theories of the Sciences: Critical PDF

By N. Stockman

ISBN-10: 9048183804

ISBN-13: 9789048183807

ISBN-10: 9401576785

ISBN-13: 9789401576789

The sciences are too very important to be left completely to scientists, and certainly they've got no longer been. The constitution of clinical wisdom, the position of the sciences in society, the right social contexts for the pursuit of medical inquiry, have lengthy been issues for mirrored image and debate in regards to the sciences carried on either inside academe and out of doors it. Even in the universities this mirrored image has now not been the valuables of any unmarried self-discipline. Philosophy could have been first within the box, yet background and the social sciences have additionally entered the fray. For the latter, new difficulties got here to the fore, because mirrored image at the sciences is, in relation to the social sciences, inevitably additionally mirrored image on themselves as sciences. mirrored image at the normal sciences and self-reflection through the social sciences got here to be ruled within the Sixties by way of the time period 'positivism'. on the time while this note were invented, the sciences have been flourishing; their social and fabric surroundings had turn into more and more beneficial to medical growth, and the sciences have been pointing how to an confident destiny. within the later 20th century, even if, 'positivism' got here to be a observe used extra often via these much less definite of 19th century certainties. In either sociology and philosophy, 'positivism' was once now anything to be rejected, and, symbolizing the cave in of an previous consensus, it turned itself the shibboleth of a brand new dissensus, as varied teams of reflective thinkers, in rejecting 'positivism', rejected whatever assorted, and infrequently rejected each one other.

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166). In other words, he claims that conventions which structurally take the place of a basis of experience in the problematic of positivism, take on the status of a new 'positive'; the currently prevailing procedures of science do, despite conventionalist disclaimers such as Popper's rejection of a 'naturalistic methodology', come to be the indubitable basis on which the justification of scientific knowledge is to be, but now circularly, erected. 42 Chapter 3 For Schnadelbach, this final twist in the history of positivism creates something markedly new.

19). Consequently experience is conceived of as a receptive process: consciousness is not in a position itself to create 'ideas' or 'impressions' as the material of knowledgll, but merely receives them from without. This model of receptivity generates in addition 'cathartic' motives, the demand that consciousness should purify itself of all distorting opinions or attitudes in order that unadulterated truth be able to gain access. This presupposition is the basis of Bacon's theory of the idols. Further, the model of receptivity is fIlled out by a theory of the senses, either, as in Locke, that sense-perception is a direct physical process of the influence of things on the senses, or, when the thesis of immanence casts doubt on this direct realism, in a form which lends to the evidential certainty (Evidenz) of the senses the maximum degree of truth and reliability.

Different writers on positivism treat this relationship very differently. Conventionalist writers themselves, for example Duhem, Poincare, and Le Roy, represented themselves as antipositivist or postpositivist. To the extent that conventionalism is put forward as a separate philosophical position at all in surveys of thought in the philosophy of the The Antipositivism of Critical Theory 35 natural sciences, their claim is not unanimously accepted. Losee gives conventionalism a chapter of its own in his historical introduction to the philosophy of science, but associates it with 'mathematical positivism' (1972, Chapter 11).

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Antipositivist Theories of the Sciences: Critical Rationalism, Critical Theory and Scientific Realism by N. Stockman


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