Read e-book online Approaches to Grammaticalization, Volume II: Types of PDF

By Elizabeth Closs Traugott (Ed.), Bernd Heine (Ed.)

ISBN-10: 902722899X

ISBN-13: 9789027228994

The research of grammaticalization increases a few basic theoretical concerns bearing on the relation of langue and parole, creativity and automated coding, synchrony and diachrony, categoriality and continua, typological features and language-specific types, etc., and for that reason demanding situations many of the easy tenets of 20th century linguistics.This two-volume paintings provides a few various theoretical viewpoints on grammaticalization and offers insights into the genesis, improvement, and association of grammatical different types in a few language world-wide, with specific awareness to morphosyntactic and semantic-pragmatic issues.
The papers in quantity I are divided into sections, the 1st all for basic technique, and the second one with problems with directionality. these in quantity II are divided into 5 sections: verbal constitution, argument constitution, subordination, modality, and a number of paths of grammaticalization.

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Extra resources for Approaches to Grammaticalization, Volume II: Types of Grammatical Markers

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There are two ways in which language type may interact with these corre­ lations: (1) Typology may interfere with the correlations. Thus, for example, if a language tends toward high fusion, then a semantically young gram may show higher fusion in that language than a semantically older gram in a less fusional language. In such a case, if we control for language type, then our form/meaning correlations will be stronger. 42 JOAN L. BYBEE, WILLIAM PAGLIUCA, AND REVERE D. PERKINS (2) Typology may contribute to the correlations.

In this group are four grams expressing desire (found in Danish, Nimboran, Bongu and Tok Pisin), six grams expressing obligation (in Basque, Danish, Slave, Bari, Haka and Buriat), and two grams expressing ability (both in Cantonese). We consider these forms to be the youngest type of future. That is, we regard future grams with agent-oriented uses as being at the beginning of their development as futures. The next stage also involves agent-oriented modality, but the particular modalities — intention, willingness and root possibility — have generalized from the more specific source meanings.

This stage represents the period during which the agent-oriented uses have been eroded, and no further uses have yet developed. Of course, at this point we can no longer tell if a particular gram has developed from a modality or from some other source, but at this stage, we claim, it does not matter. If the gram has evolved so as to signal prediction or future and nothing else, then semantically it belongs at this point. 9 At the final stage postulated here, FUTAGE 4, are those grams with future as a use which also have epistemic uses (other than prediction) or 28 JOAN L.

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Approaches to Grammaticalization, Volume II: Types of Grammatical Markers by Elizabeth Closs Traugott (Ed.), Bernd Heine (Ed.)

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