By Cynthia Stokes Brown
Jared Diamond meets Stephen Hawking in the 1st renowned e-book in an cutting edge new box that seeks to slot human historical past into the historical past of the universe, via an American ebook Award winner. An epic e-book that Kirkus referred to as "world historical past on a grand scale," Big History starts off while the universe is not any greater than the dimension of an atom and ends with a twenty-first-century planet inhabited through 6.1 billion humans. It's a narrative that takes in prehistoric geology, human evolution, the agrarian age, the Black demise, the voyages of Columbus, the economic revolution, and international warming. alongside the way in which historian Cynthia Stokes Brown considers subject matters as different as mobilephone formation, inhabitants progress, worldwide disparities, and illiteracy, making a beautiful synthesis of the historic and medical wisdom of humanity and the earth we inhabit.<p /> <p /> Big History represents a brand new form of heritage, one who skillfully interweaves historic wisdom and state-of-the-art technology. In an age while clinical advances enable us to know the historical past of mankind within the context of its ecological effect on this planet, Brown's lucid, available narrative is the 1st popularization of this cutting edge new box of research, as exciting as it really is formidable. <p />
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3 Extending phase-coherent femtosecond combs to the mid-IR spectral region Being able to combine the characteristics of two or more pulsed lasers working at different wavelengths provides a more flexible approach to coherent control. The capability of synchronizing the repetition rates and phase locking the carrier frequencies of two mode-locked lasers opens up many applications. This capability may be particularly important in the generation of tunable femtosecond sources in other previously unreachable spectral regions.
1. INTRODUCTION 17 Figure 1-1. Summary of the time-frequency correspondence for a pulse train with evolving carrier-envelope phase. 3 Determining absolute optical frequencies with octave-spanning spectra Armed with the understanding of the frequency spectrum of a modelocked laser, we now turn to the question of measuring the absolute frequencies of comb lines. For a frequency measurement to be absolute, it must be referenced to the hyperfine transition of that defines the second. From the relations listed above, we see that determining the absolute optical frequencies of the femtosecond comb requires two rf measurements, that of and Measurement of is straightforward: we simply detect the pulse train’s repetition rate (from tens of megahertz to several gigahertz) with a fast photodiode.
In addition, we are exploring the use of pulse-cavity interactions to obtain a high sensitivity in intracavity spectroscopy (linear and nonlinear) with wide spectral coverage and to enhance nonlinear interaction strengths for high-efficiency, nonlinear optical experiments. The carrier-envelope phase can also be used for deterministic control in the low-field regime because of interference between reaction channels in chemical systems and population transfer between quantum states [70, 71]. This interference had been demonstrated using separate phase-related pulses in atoms [72, 73], molecules , and in direct-gap semiconductors [75, 76].
Big History: From the Big Bang to the Present by Cynthia Stokes Brown