By Ellen B. Fung, Laura K. Bachrach, Aenor J. Sawyer
The gold-standard source for comparing bone well-being in childrens and kids, this sensible and hugely expected moment version deals a entire, totally up-to-date source for addressing bone future health in those populations. constructed through a popular overseas panel of specialists in measuring and reading bone density within the pediatric sufferer and reflecting the 2013 overseas Society for scientific Densitometry (ISCD) guidance for Pediatric DXA review, interpretation and reporting, this imperative reference covers all of the vital alterations within the box during the last nine years. a few highlights of this variation comprise: a complete bankruptcy at the evaluate of babies and tots, a bankruptcy dedicated to the overview of youngsters with disabling stipulations, an in-depth dialogue of vertebral fracture and its etiologies, and an intensive assessment of the benefits and barriers of densitometry thoughts together with DXA, pQCT, HRpQCT, and MRI. New fracture prediction software program, together with Trabecular Bone rating and Finite point research, is defined. during this variation, the constraints of DXA are addressed as are the newest concepts for dealing with them together with proposed DXA alterations resembling top Z-score. Solidifying itself because the prime textual content within the box, Bone healthiness evaluation in Pediatrics: directions for medical perform, 2nd edition presents all the serious simple research and review instruments, photographs, and calculations important for scientific perform.
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Additional resources for Bone Health Assessment in Pediatrics: Guidelines for Clinical Practice
Bedford MA and General Electric Healthcare: 2 Tools for Measuring Bone in Children and Adolescents 29 Lunar, Madison, WI) have improved image quality generally by the use of more sensitive detectors and small increases in radiation dose. Dual energy images give superior visualisation of vertebrae in the thoracic region. To acquire lateral VFA images the major DXA manufactures use different techniques: GE Lunar acquire single- (SE) and dual-energy (DE) images simultaneously and rapidly (less than 2 min) and Hologic acquire such images separately, with a rapid 10 s SE scan which is what is usually performed but the DE acquisition which is superior for visualisation of vertebrae in the thoracic spine may take up to 5–8 min depending on the size of the patient.
Non-ionising, non invasive 2. Size independent 3. Imaging in multiple planes 4. Applicable to axial and peripheral sites 5. Measurement of muscle and fat Limitations 1. Size dependence 2. Sensitive to body composition changes 3. Software and reference data changes 4. Integral measurement of trabecular and cortical bone 1. Radiation dose 2. Cost 3. Access for bone densitometry 4. Skilled staff 5. Specialist acquisition and analysis software limited 6. Limited reference data 1. Scan time 2. Only applicable to peripheral sites 3.
Vitamin D: a necessity for children and adolescents in Greece. Calcif Tissue Int. 2005;77:348–55. 70. Hintzpeter B, Scheidt-Nave C, Muller MJ, Schenk L, Mensink GB. Higher prevalence of vitamin D deﬁciency is associated with immigrant background among children and adolescents in Germany. J Nutr. 2008;138:1482–90. 71. Ginty F, Cavadini C, Michaud PA, Burckhardt P, Baumgartner M, Mishra GD, Barclay DV. Effects of usual nutrient intake and vitamin D status on markers of bone turnover in Swiss adolescents.
Bone Health Assessment in Pediatrics: Guidelines for Clinical Practice by Ellen B. Fung, Laura K. Bachrach, Aenor J. Sawyer