By Anthony Benedetto
Well illustrated with top of the range photographs, Botulinum pollution in scientific Aesthetic Practice has confirmed itself a preferable advisor to the medical use of other sorts of botulinum pollution for either esthetic and scientific reasons.
This moment version keeps all of the positive aspects that made its predecessor such a success, together with particular anatomic drawings, a overview of different formulations to be had, and specimen varieties. This variation has been revised and up-to-date all through and contours extra new fabric on medico-legal issues and mental and cultural components that can impact the intentions of sufferers and the implications that may be achieved.
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Extra resources for Botulinum Toxins in Clinical Aesthetic Practice, Second Edition
In 1989, onabotulinumtoxinA, known at that time as Oculinum, was first approved by the FDA in the United States for the treatment of strabismus and blepharospasm. By 2000, onabotulinumtoxinA now called BOTOX® was approved by the FDA for the treatment of cervical dystonia. In 2002, the FDA approved BOTOX® for the cosmetic purpose of treating glabellar frown lines. This resulted in the manufacturer’s designation of the brand name BOTOX® Cosmetic. In 2009 both BOTOX® COSMETIC USES OF BOTULINUM TOXIN A IN THE UPPER FACE and BOTOX® Cosmetic were assigned the nonproprietary name of onabotulinumtoxinA by the FDA.
However, ultimately the original motor endplate regains function, and the sprouts regress. Thus, the effects of BoNTA are temporary. For cosmetic use, the target of BoNTA has principally been the muscles of facial expression. The muscles of the face can be divided into two groups: the muscles of facial expression and the muscles of mastication (1). The muscles of facial expression are somewhat unique in their arrangement and function. On the body, muscles typically have bony attachments via ligaments at either end and are responsible for movement of the body.
The motor portion of the mandibular nerve provides function for the four muscles of mastication. Its main sensory branches supply the skin of the lower lip, chin, skin of the lateral cheek, lower mandibular region, lower gingival, and around the ear and temporal regions. Of note for injections of BoNTA, the mental branch, which provides sensation to the lower lip and chin, exits the skull at the mental foramen, which is on the lower lateral aspect of the chin, and theoretically could be traumatized if the injection needle entered the foramen during injection of the depressor anguli oris.
Botulinum Toxins in Clinical Aesthetic Practice, Second Edition by Anthony Benedetto